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古玩行2019精品推荐第12期:宋代汝窑瓷器

 2019-12-12 19:35 责任编辑:admin 来源: 作者:

古代文献上所说的“汝窑”,系指北宋时期专为宫廷烧造天青色釉青瓷的窑场,即狭义上的汝窑,也就是人们常说的“五大名窑”—一汝、官、哥、定、钧窑中的汝窑,有人称之为“汝官窑”。考古调查和发掘情况表明,其遗址位于今河南省平顶山市宝丰县大营镇清凉寺村。广义上的汝窑系指宋代汝州境内的所有窑场。

The "Ru kiln" mentioned in ancient literature refers to the kiln in the Northern Song Dynasty, which was specially used to make sky blue glaze celadon for the court, that is, the narrow sense Ru kiln, also known as the "five famous kilns" - Ru kiln in Ru, Guan, Ge, Ding and Jun kilns, some people call it "Ru official kiln". Archaeological investigation and excavation show that the site is located in Qingliangsi village, Daying Town, Baofeng County, Pingdingshan City, Henan Province. Ruyao in the broad sense refers to all the kilns in Ruzhou in the Song Dynasty.

 

 

汝窑之所以被后人推为“五大名窑”之首,最重要的原因是其产品所施淡天青色釉清淡含蓄、不温不火,满足了古代文人、士大夫在审美上对颜色的捕捉。汝窑青瓷选料精心、做工考究、胎体较薄,绝大多数都光素无纹饰,个别采用刻、印花装饰。其基本特点是造型秀丽、香灰色胎、淡天青色釉、多采用裹足支烧、外底多留有细小支烧钉痕、釉面一般开有细碎冰裂纹。

The most important reason why Ru kiln is regarded as the first of the "five famous kilns" by later generations is that the light sky blue glaze applied by its products is light and implicit, not warm and not fire, which satisfies the ancient literati and scholar officials' aesthetic capture of color. Ru kiln celadon materials carefully selected, exquisite workmanship, thin carcass, the vast majority of light plain without decorative patterns, individual use of carving, printing decoration. Its basic characteristics are beautiful shape, fragrant gray tire, light sky blue glaze, more foot wrapped burning, more small nail marks on the outer bottom, and fine ice cracks on the glaze.

由于烧造时间短且烧成难度大,汝窑瓷器在南宋时期已有“近尤难得”之记载,流传至今的产品数量更为有限,从公开发表的情况看,传世完整器不足百件,主要收藏在北京故宫博物院、台北故宫博物院、英国大英博物馆(含大维德基金会)和上海博物馆等单位。汝窑瓷器以其极高的审美价值和传世稀少而备受世人瞩目。

Due to the short firing time and the difficulty of firing, Ru kiln porcelain has been recorded as "nearly rare" in the Southern Song Dynasty, and the number of products that have been handed down to date is even more limited. According to the published situation, less than 100 pieces of complete handed down ware are mainly collected in Beijing Palace Museum, Taipei Palace Museum, British British Museum (including the David Foundation) and Shanghai Museum. Ruyao porcelain has attracted the attention of the world for its high aesthetic value and rare heritage.

既然传世汝窑瓷器与以宋徽宗赵估为代表的封建文人的审美有密切关系,而徽宗在位仅有短暂的25年,因此,汝窑为宫廷烧造瓷器的时间应该不会太长。故宫博物院著名古陶瓷研究专家陈万里先生根据徐兢(生卒年不详)撰《宣和奉使高丽图经》和南宋人顾文荐撰《负暄杂录》等有关文献分析,认为在宋哲宗元祐元年(1086年)至徽宗崇宁五年(1106年)期间,前后约20年左右。叶喆民先生在《汝窑甘年考察纪实》中进而推断其终于宣和末年,盛烧约40年。

Since the porcelain handed down from Ru kiln is closely related to the aesthetics of the feudal literati represented by Zhao Jian, Emperor Huizong of Song Dynasty, and the reign of Emperor Huizong lasted only 25 years, the time for Ru kiln to make porcelain for the court should not be too long. Chen Wanli, a famous ancient ceramics research expert of the Palace Museum, based on the analysis of relevant documents such as the picture book of Xuanhe Fengshi Gaoli written by Xu Jing (the year of birth and death is unknown) and the miscellaneous records of negative greetings written by Gu Wenjian, a native of Southern Song Dynasty, and so on, thinks that during the period from the first year of Yuanyou (1086) of zhezong in Song Dynasty to the fifth year of Chongning (1106) of Huizong, about 20 years ago or so. Mr. Ye Jianmin concluded in the investigation record of Ruyao Gan year that he finally declared the last year of the reign of emperor Xuanhe, which lasted for about 40 years.

 

由于汝窑烧造时间短,故传世器物不多,国内外现存不足百件,且大都为原清宫旧藏品,目前主要收藏在北京故宫博物院(20件)、台北故宫博物院(21件)、英国伦教大维德基金会(12件)、上海博物馆(9件)、英国伦敦大英博物馆(5件)等单位,国内外其他公、私博物馆和私人手中亦有零星收藏。

Due to the short firing time of Ru kiln, there are not many handed down artifacts, and there are less than 100 existing artifacts at home and abroad, most of which are old collections of the original Qing palace. At present, they are mainly collected in Beijing Palace Museum (20 pieces), Taipei Palace Museum (21 pieces), British Lunjiao David Foundation (12 pieces), Shanghai Museum (9 pieces), British British British Museum (5 pieces), and other public institutions at home and abroad Private museums and private hands also have sporadic collections.

 

此件汝窑瓷器,圆口,直壁,筒腹,平底,整器造型大方,制作精细独特,

This Ru kiln porcelain, with round mouth, straight wall, barrel belly and flat bottom, has a generous shape and unique craftsmanship,

 

胎骨适中,釉面平滑,釉面滋润,釉色天青色,器表呈蝉翼纹和蟹爪纹,纹路细小,不规则网格状大小开片。

The fetal bone is moderate, the glaze is smooth, the glaze is moist, the glaze is sky blue, the surface of the utensil is cicada wing pattern and crab claw pattern, the grain is small, and the irregular grid size slice.

 

其表面纹路中有白亮裂纹,泡封在釉内,稀疏气泡,玛瑙入釉,色泽独特,随光变幻,观其釉色,可见多彩宝光。

There are white cracks in the surface lines, bubbles are sealed in the glaze, sparse bubbles, agate into the glaze, the color is unique, changing with the light, the glaze color can be seen, colorful light.

 

纯属宋代汝窑标准器,器型娇小不失庄重,相较于其他实用器的瓷器来讲,此种观赏器更是稀少。少之又少,获其具有极高的收藏价值及观赏性,是一件不可多得的珍藏。

It belongs to the standard ware of Ru kiln in Song Dynasty. Its shape is delicate and solemn. Compared with other practical wares, this kind of ornamental ware is even rarer. It's rare. It has high collection value and appreciation. It's a rare collection.

 

 

 

 

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